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高考 | 2017高考英语写作高分技巧汇总,太全了!

高考 | 2017高考英语写作高分技巧汇总,太全了!

编者语

近几年全国卷书面表达给考生提供了很大的思维空间,让考生围绕主题去组织思想和内容,那么如何审题就显得尤为重要。

步骤指导 
第一步:定体裁、中心

审题准——审题确定方向,行文紧扣主题

根据提示,首先要弄清写何种体裁的文章,是记叙文、说明文、应用文,还是议论文。无论提供材料的方式是文字描述,还是图画或表格,要求文章的主要体裁是唯一的。近几年全国卷写作考查书信类居多,在确定是应用文的书信类之后,还要审是建议信、请求信、道歉信还是推荐信等,要求写的是说明介绍、解释原因还是计划安排等。

第二步:定要点、人称、时态

要点准——要点全而不漏

要点要全:根据要点提示,提取keywords, 拟定topic sentences。定要点时要弄清什么该写,什么不该写;哪些该详写,哪些该略写。

人称要对:审人称,即用什么人称来表达。书信中常常会用到第一、二人称,但在涉及其他人、物介绍说明时,常用第三人称。

时态要准:讲述现在的情况应用一般现在时;涉及计划打算时,常用一般将来时;涉及对以往的叙述时,常用一般过去时。当然情态动词的恰当运用,也会使表达更加准确,语气更加自然。

第三步:定段落

结构美——行文条理清晰,力避一段到底,根据写作提示内容与要点,常采用二段式或三段式的段落模式。

实战演练

【典例】 ( 2015全国卷Ⅱ)假如你是李华,计划和同学去敬老院(nursing  home)陪老人们过重阳节(the Double Ninth Festival)。请给外教露西写封邮件,邀她一同前往,内容包括:1.出发及返回时间;2.活动:包饺子、表演节目等。

注意:1.词数100左右;

2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3.结语已为你写好。

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

Looking forward to your reply.

Yours,

Li Hua 

【审题步骤】

第一步:定体裁、中心

体裁:an email of invitation 

主题:a plan to visit the nursing home 

第二步:定要点、人称、时态

写作要点:

Point 1:to invite Lucy to join us for a visit to the nearby nursing home 

Point 2:to help the elderly there 

Point 3:the time to set off — at 9 in the morning; the time to come 
back:around 4 oclock in the afternoon

Point 4:activities — making dumplings and cakes, dancing and playing 
games

人称:采用第一、二人称

时态:以一般将来时为主

第三步:定段落

Para. 1:介绍重阳节,概述活动计划

Para. 2:具体活动安排

Para. 3:发出邀请及提醒

【参考范文】

Dear Lucy,

The Double Ninth Festival,which is the day set aside for the elderly in our 
culture,is drawing near. Our class plan is to visit the nursing home this Sunday 
in order to help the elderly there and enrich our after\class life at the same time.

Here are some detailed arrangements during our stay there. Well make 
dumplings and cakes with the elderly people. Well also spend some fun time 
together singing,dancing and playing games,which will make them happy. We should be back around 4 oclock in the afternoon as planned. Im convinced that the 
activity will be enjoyable and meaningful.

If youd like to join us,please let us know and well wait for you at the  school gate at 9 in the morning.

Looking forward to your reply.

Yours,

Li Hua



遣好词造妙句,秒变“高大上”

编者语

在高考书面表达阅卷中,最忌讳的就是大众化的词汇和平庸的表达,要想得高分,就得多用高级词汇,注意遣词造句。

1.三大原则教你正确使用"高级词汇"
原则一:"弃旧取新"原则

阅卷老师偏爱"学得晚"的单词,因为使用学得比较晚的单词,可以体现学生"学以致用"的意识。例如,表示"美丽的"形容词,同学们首先想到的是初中词汇beautiful,用高中词汇appealing,ttractive,charming和fascinating等来替换beautiful,可以为书面表达提分不少。

原则二: "短语优先"原则

高考书面表达中,多使用词组和习语来代替一些单词可以起到增加文采的作用。例如,first可用to begin / start with 替换;besides可以用in addition和what is more替换;consider可以用take sth.into consideration/account替换;remember可以用 keep in mind替换。

原则三:"避免重复"原则

同学们要想写出一篇好的书面表达,就要尽量避免重复多次使用同一个简单的单词。例如,反复使用should,这时考生应该充分发散思维,灵活地运用短语be supposed to 和had better等进行替换。

2.常用词的高级"变身"

1. devote替换spend 


He spends all his spare time in reading. →

He devotes all his spare time to reading.


2. average替换ordinary

I’m an average(ordinary) student.


3. but替换very

 

The film we saw last night was very interesting. →

The film we saw last night was nothing but interesting.


4. seat 替换sit


On his way to school, he found an old lady seated(sitting) by the road, looking worried.


5. suppose 替换should

 

He is supposed to(should) have driven more slowly.


6. appreciate替换thank

 

Thank you very much for your help. →

We appreciate your help very much.

 

7. the case替换true

 

I don’t think it is the case(true).


8. on替换as soon as

  

As soon as he arrived, he began his research. →

On his arrival, he began his research.


9. due to替换because of

  

He arrived late due to(because of) the storm.


10. cover替换walk/read

 

After covering (walking) 10 miles, we all felt tired.


11. contribute to替换 be helpful/useful

  

Plenty of memory work is undoubtedly helpful to English study. →

Plenty of memory work will undoubtedly contribute to English study.


12. round the corner替换coming soon/ nearby


① The summer vacation is round the corner(coming soon). Do you have any plans?

② Li Ming studies in a school round the corner(nearby).


13. come to light替换discover


The family were so pleased when they discovered the lost jewels. →

The family were so pleased when the lost jewels came to light.


14. have a ball替换have a good time/ enjoy oneself


 After visiting the workshop, we went back to school. Every one of us had a ball(had a good time).


15. come up with替换think of


Jack is very clever. He often comes up with (thinks of) new ideas.


16. set aside替换save


Some students think that they should set aside some of their pocket money for books.

 

17. be of + n. 替换adj.


The products are of high quality (very good) and are sold everywhere in China.


18. refer to替换talk about/of,mention


The professor you referred to(talked about ) is very famous.


19. lest替换so that /in order that

  

I wrote down his telephone number so that I would not forget it. →

I wrote down his telephone number lest I forget it.


20. be caught up in/be crazy about/be absorbed in/be addicted to替换be interested in

He is caught up in (interested in) collecting stamps.


21. more than替换very


I’m very glad to learn that you are coming in September. →

I’m more than glad to learn that you are coming in September.


22. perfect(ly) 替换good/ very well


He speaks perfect(good) English./ He speaks English perfectly(very well).


23. do sb. a favor替换help


Would you please do me a favor(help me) to turn down the radio?


24. in the course of替换during


In the course of(During) the mountain-climbing, please help each other and pay special attention to your safety.


25. the majority of替换most


The majority of(Most of) the interviewees prefer watching TV at home to going to the cinema.

 

26. consist of替换be made up of


Our class consists of (is made up of) 50 students.


27. be worn out替换 be tired / broken


① After five hours’ non-stop work, we were all worn out(tired).

② My shoes are worn out(broken). Please buy me a new pair.


28. attend to替换look after


29. on condition that替换as long as


30. nevertheless替换however



3.高级句型结构

◆ It句型


① It will be + some time + before…

  It won’t be long before humans visit the Mars.

  

② It is + adj./ n.+ for sb to do sth.

  It is very important for us to learn computer well, because it has changed our life so much.

  

③ It is + 被强调部分 + that…

  It is what Yang Liwei has done that encourages us a lot.

  Those who like reading extensively say it is through reading that we get our knowledge.

 

◆ more …than any other 表示最高级


Indian produces more films than any other country in the world.

  

◆ 名词从句


① It would mean a great deal to me to listen to the tape and learn what is covered in the talk. 


② My hometown is no longer what it used to be.

  

◆(非限制性)定语从句


① The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street. It is not far from Jianxin Chinese School.


改为:The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street, which is not far from Jianxin Chinese School.

  

② It was quite an experience for us both. I’ll never forget it for the rest of my life.


改为:It was quite an experience for us both, which I’ll never forget for the rest of my life.  


◆ 分词结构 


① I don’t know about others, but I used to have to work even at weekends doing endless homework and attending classes as well.


② We’ll mostly stay at home in the evening watching TV, playing games, and meeting people. 


③ Hearing this, a few people began to run after him.

  

④ Born in America, Thomas Edison was a great scientist and inventor.  

 

◆ with结构

  

① A terrible accident happened yesterday, with nine people killed and almost eighty injured.


② He was carrying a large bag on his shoulder, with a large suitcase in his left hand.

 

◆ 倒装句

  

① The library is to the east of the teaching building.

改为:East of the teaching building is the library.

  

② Although we are tired, we are happy.

改为:Tired as we are, we are happy.

  

③ He can grow to be a useful man only in this way.

改为:Only in this way can he grow to be a useful man.  


◆ 被动语态

  

① Opinions are divided on the question.

  

② All classes are taught by teachers with rich experience in teaching foreign students.

  

③ New factories, houses and roads have been built.

 

◆ 巧妙的改写

   

① Only等于no one but

      

Only Tom passed the exam last week.

改为:No one but Tom passed the exam.

   

② as soon as …可用No sooner…than… / Hardly…when…代替

      

As soon as we had arrived at the cinema, the film started

改为:No sooner had we arrived at the cinema than the film started.

   

③ have sb /sth / done


The girl was knocked off her bicycle and had her leg broken

改为:The girl was knocked off her bicycle and had her leg was broken

 

④ 变换插入语的位置

     

However, they suggest fees should be charged low.

     

They suggest, however, fees should be charged low.

     

I think this is a good chance for you to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese.

     

This is a good chance for you, I think, to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese.

  

⑤ 用同位语代替非限制性定语从句

     

Meimei, who is seven years old, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.

改为:Meimei, a girl of seven, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.


◆ 其他

  

1. 注重句子的开头

  

① 用with复合结构开头

  

With the sun setting in the west, we had to wave goodbye to the workers.

    

With his help, we’ve learned how to analyze and settle problems.

  

② 用非谓语动词形式开头

  

In order to improve our English, our school held an English contest.

  

Walking towards the cinema, he met a foreigner.

  

2. 长短句交错使用(注意:应突出主题句;长句子并非越长越好)

  

◆◆ 相关过渡语

  

1. 表示时间顺序: first,then,afterwards,meanwhile,later,first of all,finally,at last等

 

2. 表示空间顺序: near,next to,far from,in front of,on the left,on one side等

  

3. 表示比较、对照: like,unlike,such as,but,however,on the other hand,on the contrary,nevertheless,otherwise等

  

4. 表示因果关系: because,for,as a result,therefore,thus等

  

5. 表示递进关系: besides,what’s more,what was worse,moreover,furthermore,in addition等

  

6. 表示并列关系: and,as well as,also等

  

7. 表示总结性: in general,in a word,in short,on the whole,to sum up,in brief,to conclude等




书面表达热点话题必备词汇

编者语

热点话题的基本词汇是你顺利完成写作的保证,而其亮点词汇是你得高分的催化剂,两者都掌握才能既有内容又有质量。

话题一:中学生的爱好与兴趣

基本词汇:favorite(最喜欢的);taste(爱好,志趣); read novels(读小说);surf the Internet(上网); chat online(在线聊天);collect stamps(集邮); make e\|friends(交网友); climb mountains(爬山);enjoy pop music(喜欢流行音乐)

亮点词汇:develop an interest in(在……方面培养兴趣); be fond of(喜欢);be keen on(对……着迷); have a taste in(喜爱);hobby(业余爱好);be interested in(对……感兴趣);have a great love for(非常喜爱……)

话题二:友谊

基本词汇:make friends with sb.(和某人交朋友); a strong personality (个性强); personal matters(私事); friendly(友好的); a close friend(一个亲密的朋友); trust each other (互相信任); share...with sb.(与某人分享); keep in touch with sb. (与某人保持联系); stay best friends with sb. (和某人保持很好的友谊); a friend in need(患难之交)

亮点词汇:get to know sb.(认识某人); know sb. very well(熟知某人); precious(珍贵的); worthy(有价值的);understanding(善解人意的);be loyal to(对……忠诚);keep sb. company.(陪伴,做伴) 

话题三:招聘与求职

基本词汇:employ(雇用); full\|time(全职的); part\|time(兼职的); well\|paid(薪水高的); be paid by the hour(按小时发工资); subject(网上真人博彩);working experience(工作经验); health(健康状况); present address(目前的地址);graduate from(毕业于); degree(学位); scholarship(奖学金); good grades(良好的成绩);be good at(擅长); perienced(有经验的); confident(自信的); English and computer ability(英语和计算机能力)

亮点词汇:requirement(要求); resume(简历);schooling(学校教育); qualification(资格,学历); transcript (学生成绩报告单);apply for(申请); be skilled in/at(在……方面熟练); major in(主修);minor in(辅修)

话题四:中学生健康问题

基本词汇:physical and mental condition(身体与精神状况); strong(强壮的); unhealthy/healthy(不健康的/健康的); fat(太胖的); thin(瘦的); nearsighted/short\sighted(近视的); normal(正常的); abnormal(不正常的); energetic(精力旺盛的); eating habit(饮食习惯); eat too much junk food (吃太多的垃圾食品); stay/keep healthy/fit(保持健康); enough sleep(充足的睡眠); good living habit(良好的生活习惯); lose weight(减肥) ; nutrition(营养)

亮点词汇:build up ones body/improve ones health(强身健体); ease the 
burden(减轻负担);be/go on a diet(节食);overweight(太胖的); take regular 
exercise(进行有规律的运动);proper diet(合理的饮食);be good for/do good to(对……有益处)

话题五:校园文明与安全问题

基本词汇:school rules and regulations(学校规章制度); behave well(表现良好);be neatly dressed(穿戴整洁); respect ones teachers and parents(尊敬师长); be on time(准时); keep the environment clean(保持环境干净); break the rules(违反规定); spit(吐痰); cheat in the exam(考试作弊); get in line (排队); fight with sb.(与某人打架); punish sb. for (因……处罚某人)

亮点词汇:observe discipline(遵守纪律);civilized(文明的); be expected to(被期望);be of no good to (对……毫无益处)

话题六:环境保护

基本词汇:pollute(污染);cut down trees(砍伐树木);waste water(废水);throw rubbish around(乱扔垃圾);protect the surroundings(保护周边环境);protect rare animals(保护稀有动物); improve the environment(改善环境);save energy(节省能源)

亮点词汇:do great harm to(给……带来很大危害)

话题七:和谐社会

基本词汇:harmonious(和谐的);honest(诚实的); credible (可信的); balanced(平衡的); social order(社会秩序); peaceful(和平的); sustainable development(可持续发展);help each other(互助); care for each other(互相关心); have a liking for (喜爱); build(创建); cherish(珍惜); public morals(社会道德)

亮点词汇:devote to(献身); be public\|spirited(有公德心的);be concerned with (关心); live in harmony(和谐共处)

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